Some of that can easily be explained away with common practices.
Of course everyone speaks English, unless there's a reason for the common tongue to not be English it's always English because we all speak English. If you really want the experience of them all speaking a fantasy language you don't understand, just switch audio to Japanese or something and put on subtitles.
Oh no, no Duke of Sandwiches. Boo hoo. It's bread, meat, and cheese together. They could call it a glumpforth or something, or they could just call it a sandwich because, again, everyone knows what a sandwich is and it doesn't take an extra sentence to explain it.
Time passage is irrelevant. Biggest example I can think of is in Star Trek: DS9, where the entire series is in orbit around a planet with a slightly longer day. It makes no changes to the plot or anything, it only ever affects phrases, such as "I want that station manned 26 hours a day, 7 days a week." Otherwise there are zero plot effects, and if it doesn't add anything and is just a "lol so random" difference you need to deal with, why bother?
As for moon phases, that's a function of physics. Unless you want to rewrite physics for the sake of the show, that's just how moon phases work.
Now I'm gonna go and have some hot brown morning potion.