Space is a welfare program and is a backup in case US relations go wrong>Russia
Khrunichev was a potential competitor, but shoot themselves in the foot and collapsed before SpaceX became a thing. Making private business isn't possible at all, because anything visible without the "protection" of someone powerful will be raided by someone powerful. Space is a welfare program as well lately, ambitions are dwindling.>China
The best in the world at production of something that is proved to be working. not so much at making something truly new. Will take time though, and they're also plagued by the Russian crony capitalism disease, although much less.>Japan
Over-relying on government, have no country-wide experience to lean on.
In general, everybody is kinda slow to pick up the reusable game because it's mostly working for SpaceX because of their particular circumstances.
There's no silver bullet in reusable rockets, everybody trying to cut the cost will have to adapt to their local environment and just blindly copying SpaceX and VTVL is pretty pointless, that's why China doesn't have something like this yet. Having a strong space industry to lean on is a huge plus too.