cut out Kate and that's preddy gud Ultimates fanart.
He even included the pointless background squares!>>80147695
Marvel Super-Heroes #12 & #13 and the first 18 issues of Captain Marvel for background context (although you could just skip to #18 if shit starts to get boring).
Ms Marvel v1, I guess. I read it relatively recently for completion's sake and whilst it emphasizes the warrior part more strongly than any other run it spends most of its time on world building that never ended up getting used. If nothing else read issue 17 onwards.
I'm tempted to say Avengers 200 and Avengers Annual 10 but if you already know their respective twists there's not much point, you get why they're there.
The Brood storyline in Uncanny X-Men. Good shit. Apparently it starts at #155 but I only read from #162, judge for yourself.
She was irrelevant for the next decade, but Marvel Fanfare #24 and the Galactic Storm issues of Quasar (or #34 at least) are both about her and both great reads.
Busiek Avengers. Probably more character development than she's gotten in any of her solo series. She leaves in the middle for a while but it's still Busiek Avengers so still a good read.
Ms Marvel v2, by Brian Reed. It's kinda bland on the whole but the high points are fucking worth it.
Secret Avengers #26-28. PROTECTOR OF THE BLOODY OMNIVERSE
Honestly, v1 of KSD's Captain Marvel. It refers back to a lot of this history and still gives Carol some personality. If nothing else read The Enemy Within crossover arc that blows it off.