So first of all, you need to know math (calculus and differential equations) - you could learn these on the go, or maybe you already know them, but they were created for describing physical phenomena, so are mandatory. In addition to reading textbooks (DiPrima for diffEQ), I would reccomend watching some awsome videos on youtube that did not exist when I was a student (3Blue1Brown's The Essence of Calculus series, Kahn Academy, etc..)
Now after that, I do not know what a good book is for basic Newtonian physics (force, kinematics, etc), but that is usually the first topic covered as it introduces concepts of force, energy etc in most intuitive way (Kahn academy has good vids on this)
Anyway, I did ME undergrad and that is about the only physics we touched, the rest was applications of these principles (Newtonian, rigid body) - and a little bit of heat and electricity but without the physical fundamentals of what these are.
For heat (statistical physics), the best book is Introduction to Thermal Physics by Schroeder
For E and M (electric and magnetic fields) the best book is Griffith's Introduction to Electrodynamics (this is one of my favorite books in general)
There is a pretty good book on Nuclear physics by Krane (just referred to as Krane by my prof)
I think all 3 of these touch on quantum mechanics/ relativistic effects to varying degrees, but I never took a quantum class myself. I read that grffiths also has a book on quantum mechanics, he makes things very clear.
My 'specialty' was supposed to be plasma physics (but I'm a brainlet). If you want to learn about that, then learn all the aforementioned and then read Introduction to Plasma Physics by Gurnett and Bhattarchee (sp?) - also the JD Callen lectures from Univ of Wisconsin (they used to only be on UW Engineering website, but someone put at least some of them on youtube)